Prague Jewish Town was settled at the 10th century between the area of Charles Bridge, Vltava river and the old Town Square as the most important Jewish community in Czech. The Jewish Quarter had its own judiciary and government and was included in 1850 into city of Prague and was called Josefov in memory of the Emperor Joseph II. The largest Jewish economic and cultural center in Europe was Prague's Jewish Quarter in the Jewish Town. Recently it is the oldest kept functional synagogue in Europe which serves for spiritual purposes. Economically and culturally the most prosperous times of the Jews were between 16th and 17th centuries. Many public and private buildings were built. The most impressive were the Maisel Synagogue, the Hall, Pinkas Synagogue and many others. The main builder of the Jewish ghetto and the richest man Morchedai Maisel is well known to every Jewish inhabitant until now. Rabbi Yehudah ben Bezalel Livi, named Loew, is also well known as the creator of the Golem statue as well as the astronomer Jacob and Joseph Solomon Delmedigo Bassevi. All the famous citizens of the ghetto were buried at the Old Jewish Cemetery.
The golden age of the Jewish Town was over at the 17th century due to epidemic of plague. Another relapse came at the 18th century with the antisemitism policy of the state establishment. The 19th century brought the decadence time to the Jewish Quarter. Therefor the government decided to erect almost the entire original ghetto. Even many important buildings and synagogues, palaces and private houses were destroyed, the Baroque Town Hall, the Old-New Synagogue, Pinkas, Maisel, Klaus, High, Spanish Synagogues, The Old Cemetery were preserved until today.
The Jewish Museum which shows historical and artistic valuable objects from demolished synagogues, private houses and palaces was established in 1906.
The oldest well preserved Gothic synagogue in the Central Europe is the Old-New Synagogue. The main religious offices are still held here.
The main headquarter for the Czech Jewish community is at the Jewish Town Hall.
It is very famous building especially for the clock with hands going in opposite direction and Hebrew numerals. Pinkas Synagogue is well known due to its wall with 80.000 jew names from Bohemia and Moravia, who died during World War II in concentration camps.
Behind the Old Jewish Cemetery there was established Klaus Synagogue, by Mordechaiem Maisel in 1689 and later burned to the ground and reconstructed in
the 19th century again.
Spanish Synagogue was brought in by architect Ignac Ulmann and Josef Niklas between years 1867 and 1868.
It shows history of the Czech Jewish community.